Human resource development strategy for China to become the world manufacturing center
first, the realistic foundation and challenges of becoming the "world manufacturing center" (I) realistic foundation: China can become the world factory and then develop into the "world manufacturing center"
although China is still quite far away from the world manufacturing center, the foundation for becoming the world factory is still very solid, It can gradually transition from the "world factory" to the world manufacturing center. China's output of steel, coal, cement, chemical fiber, television and other products has ranked first in the world. It has a high share in the world market, such as 16% for steel, 26% for coal and 25% for cement
the 2004 Global Competitiveness Report of the Lausanne School of management in Switzerland pointed out that China's economic achievements last year were outstanding, with the national economy growing by 9.1% and foreign exchange reserves reaching US $400billion. China is currently the fourth largest exporter in the world after the United States, Japan and Germany. The report predicts that China will soon become one of the world's manufacturing centers
China's advantages of becoming a "world manufacturing center"
first, low labor costs. The International Monetary Fund and scholars have calculated the wages and remuneration of the manufacturing industry in some Asian countries and regions. After converting according to the exchange rate between the currencies of various countries (regions) and the United States, the weekly average wages of the manufacturing industry in 1998 are listed in Table 1
second, the quality of the labor force continues to improve. Due to the development of education, the number of college students in China's general colleges and universities increased from 1.144 million in 1980 to 5.561 million in 2000, an average annual increase of 8.2% over the past 20 years. Due to the gradual popularization of nine-year compulsory education, the cultural level of ordinary workers has also been correspondingly improved
third, the "bottleneck" of infrastructure has been basically eliminated. The departments of energy, transportation, communications, engineering, construction and equipment installation can provide a relatively sufficient guarantee for the manufacturing industry
because China has some of the above advantages, a large number of foreign and overseas capital continue to enter China, especially the entry of large multinational companies in the world, which will promote the improvement of China's manufacturing industry in terms of technology, equipment, products and management
at present, China's important role in global manufacturing cannot be underestimated. With the rapid economic growth, information diversification, division of labor diversification, regionalization and globalization, China is still expected to develop rapidly into the world manufacturing center on the basis of the above. The future of China's manufacturing industry will be analyzed in detail later
(II) opportunities for China's manufacturing industry
at present, the national political situation is stable, the direction of economic development is clear, the economy continues to rise, and the many problems that perplex China's economy are being solved or alleviated one by one. Over the years, infrastructure projects with huge investment have played an increasingly important role, laying a solid foundation for the next development of China's economy. In addition, the relevant demand industries are growing, and the domestic market demand trend of the manufacturing industry is improving; The transfer trend of manufacturing capital brings opportunities to China. Since 2000, with the slowdown of the world economy, the profits of multinational corporations have declined significantly. Major companies are looking for the lowest cost manufacturing base again. China, which has a huge market, rich and cheap labor, millions of talented engineers and good infrastructure, has become the first choice for multinational corporations to invest
by 2020, China's manufacturing industry will have a rapid development. Table 2 is the prediction of the development of manufacturing industry by 2020
(3) he predicted that China's manufacturing industry will face more challenges
after China's accession to the WTO, the level of manufacturing industry and enterprises have a trend of polarization. With the completion of the WTO transition period and the gradual implementation of commitments, the impact of foreign industries will be significantly strengthened in the next few years. Regional competition makes many manufacturing bases in China face greater upgrading pressure. Eager relatives and neighbors have become major competitors. At present, China is still the ideal choice for international investors, and the competitiveness of China's manufacturing industry remains at a considerable level; But as time goes on, the competition for labor force will drive up costs more strongly. In the case of rising manufacturing costs in China, even if the Chinese market is attractive, cautious companies will disperse all their funds, and Southeast Asia provides a new investment venue
the original comparative advantage of China's manufacturing industry is gradually weakening. When China's huge domestic demand has not quickly changed from potential to reality, China is quietly losing the luster of "world manufacturing base" under the attack of domestic troubles and foreign aggression. One of the challenges is the rising cost of investing in China. The second challenge is that China has followed a helpless growth formula; With the introduction of new equipment to manufacture new products, within a few months, countless Chinese manufacturers also began to copy them, and the price fell, so foreign companies either began to look for new markets and no longer export high-end technology to China in the Hushan Industrial Park in Minhou Qingkou Investment Zone. The third challenge is that at present, most industries and enterprises made in China are still in the stage of relying on comparative advantages, mainly manufacturing. There are disadvantages such as weak scientific and technological innovation ability, insufficient brand building, insufficient logistics support, weak infrastructure, lack of management talents and skilled technicians
under the realistic conditions of both opportunities and challenges, whether China can become the "world manufacturing center" has caused a series of debates and discussions
second, the divergence and confrontation of the theory of China becoming a "world manufacturing center"
most experts are positive and optimistic about China's development into a "world manufacturing center". Joseph Stiglitz, the chief economist, once pointed out that the "wild goose structure" development trend of Japan as the economic leader of Asia has been broken. Due to the rapid development of China, Asia has entered a real era of competition. Lee Hsien Loong, deputy general manager of Singapore, also said at the high-level enterprise meeting held by Forbes magazine in September 2001 that just as Japan became the "world factory" after World War II, China will become the "world factory" in the 21st century. Lu Zheng, a domestic scholar with higher cost and director of the Institute of economics and industry of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, believes that if we fully tap and make good use of our own advantages and make up for deficiencies, China will be able to become a world industrial production and supply base; Considering the overall competitive strategy, becoming the world manufacturing center should also be a strategic choice for China's economic development
from the perspective of scientific and technological innovation, the competitiveness of "made in China" is insufficient. From the perspective of brand, there are not many enterprises that "made in China" attach importance to brand. "At present, No.1 in the world of made in China is only reflected in output, but how about our innovation? How about brand recognition?" There are also many experts who are cautiously optimistic about the terms "made in China", "world factory" and "world manufacturing center"Professor wangzhile of the international economic and Trade Research Institute of the Ministry of foreign trade and economic cooperation believes that the so-called world factory is not only the world's main manufacturing base and export base, but also innovative products that lead the world's manufacturing trend. According to this standard, China is far from being a "world factory", let alone a world manufacturing center. Some Japanese experts also pointed out that although Japan's manufacturing industry has declined in recent years, it is still one of the most competitive countries, and some industries in China cannot be compared with Japan in technology
although there are different opinions on whether China is a "world manufacturing center" and whether it can become a "world manufacturing center", the conclusion is not research after all. Please press the reset button (rest) on the right timer to clear it for discussion or analysis. Wangzhongming, director of the information center of the State Economic and Trade Commission, said in his concluding speech that "the world manufacturing center" is the will of the times and a force of social logic of historical development. Whether you like it or not, history must show its will tenaciously
building a world factory is a historical process and a complex system engineering. Many experts said that China is not yet the "world manufacturing center", and we need to make a lot of preparations, involving property rights, ownership, technological progress, management, the improvement of the quality of workers and so on. This system project has many tentacles, great relevance and involves all aspects, which also determines that the settlement of the world factory in China will become a reality and cannot be achieved overnight
"made in China" products are developing towards high-tech content and high added value, which is a necessary stage. The development of science and technology is inseparable from the application of human resources. Therefore, the development of made in China is also inseparable from the development of human resources strategy
Third, the human resource development strategy of becoming the "world manufacturing center"
under the background that China is about to develop into the "world manufacturing center", that is, with the rapid development of science and technology, the increasingly extensive application of new technologies, and the continuous promotion of high-tech industrialization, the shortage of senior skilled workers is becoming more and more serious today. A serious problem is before us: who will make "made in China"
(I) examples of the current situation of technician talent gap
at the 11th senior technical and management talent recruitment conference held in Chengdu recently, an enterprise in Sichuan offered a high annual salary of 300000 to hire senior technicians, but failed to do so. Some enterprises in Kunshan, Jiangsu Province shouted the slogan of "employing senior welders with an annual salary of 280000", and it is still difficult to find good generals. The Yangtze River Delta region has always been a pioneer of farming and reading, and now the "shortage of skilled workers" has also become a bottleneck restricting the development of the region. In Shanghai, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and other places, the monthly salary of senior technicians was 5000 or 6000, and the annual salary of more than 100000. Many places are planning to introduce salary policies that favor the front-line senior technicians. Some local governments set the maximum annual salary of skilled workers such as auto repairmen at the level equivalent to or higher than that of doctors in the open wage guidance price. What's more, the employment rate of college graduates in some areas is less than 60%, while students in higher vocational schools are often booked out before graduation, and the employment rate is as high as 99%
rarity is the most valuable thing. The inclination of price leverage to the supplier market reflects the current serious scarcity of skilled workers, especially senior skilled workers. A survey report recently released by the Ministry of labor and social security shows that at present, there are 140million workers in China's urban enterprises, including 70million skilled workers. Among the skilled workers, senior skilled workers account for only 3.5%, which is far from the level of 40% in developed countries. According to the tenth five year plan, the proportion of senior technicians in China should reach 15%. At present, the gap of senior technicians is as high as millions
(II) reasons for the scarcity of special human resources
we can be sure that the high salary of senior technicians is not the media's grandstanding. The phenomenon of the rare shortage of talents in senior technician positions all over the country just shows the special value of the senior technician industry. This scarcity determines its dominant position in the highly competitive talent market. But when the number of laid-off workers is rising and the employment situation of ordinary college graduates is generally not ideal, why can senior skilled workers be scarce? "Rome wasn't built in a day". The lack of senior technicians should be the combination of our long-term abnormal outlook on talent, misunderstanding of vocational education, long-term accumulation of social traditional culture and wrong guidance of social atmosphere